The aim of which job is to learn the end result off reproduce and years on the egg production together with eggs outside and you will internal quality in the four Italian twin-goal breeds , in the beginning and some weeks later than simply first days putting pastime that occurred, respectively, at the end of june/beginning of autumn and also in winter, less than adjustable environment standards.
2.step 1. Pets and you will Rearing Conditions
Four Italian poultry breeds, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and you can Robusta Lionata (RL), was indeed noticed towards studies. You pounds of mature lady is actually step 1.25 kilogram into the PP, dos.30 kg inside Er and you can step three.05 kilogram from inside the RM and you may RL. Their supply ‘s the Veneto region (Italy): PP is actually an old regional breed; its provider is actually dated back once again to the latest XIX century, but no precise data towards their genetic supply can be found. Another types are created in the Veneto inside 1950s: the newest Er reproduce is inspired by Sussex (shaded eggshell reproduce) and you will Rhode Isle (brown eggshell breed) types, whereas to your RM and you can RL breeds, Brown Orpington and you will White The usa, a few brownish eggshell breeds were utilized . Along with the adult fat, such breeds differ within plumage the colour: it’s golden into the PP, Er shows erminate plumage, RM plumage is mainly white having black extremities in several countries of body, black feathers from primaries and you will tail and you may RL reveals an effective tawny plumage having black colored feathers out-of primaries and you can end. All the breeds (Figure S1) reveal single brush and you can lay shaded eggshell eggs (Figure S2).
dos. Content and techniques
Wild birds regarding for each and every breed hatched meanwhile (last half out of elizabeth ranch of your Hub to have Chicken Biodiversity Maintenance regarding Veneto region (they consistently offers up the fresh new rearing of them breeds also as for the egg development for incubation and brooding), inside Northern Italy (45°02?53? N), off hatching for the pubertal many years and you will about laying several months, which come from the prevent off summer towards beginning of fall (Profile step 1), with regards to the breed. Eating, rearing standards (photoperiod, temperature) and you will prophylaxis procedures was a comparable for the five types, since away from hatching for the stop of one’s analyzed period, which had been in the , on 53 months old. The fresh new newly hatched chicks have been remaining indoors in first cuatro months of life, in the a green heat decreasing regarding thirty-two so you’re able to 24 °C, under infra-yellow rays lights, with the litter. On 1.5 months of age, the new birds received free usage of outdoor spaces, out-of spring season so you’re able to trip and you can cold temperatures. For each breed (60 hens) got totally free accessibility outdoor (5 m 2 /bird) place (equipped with linear drinkers), where the hens resided for hours, and interior (cuatro hens/m 2 ) place (timber shavings and you can straw litter, having perches and you can round feeders), used mainly for laying egg (cumulative dating app fГ¶r att trГ¤ffa kinesiska kvinnor nests) as well as night; the bedroom (indoor and backyard) open to for every single reproduce was divided by netting.
At the outset of laying (at about twenty two days of age towards the reproduce which have earlier start of laying), in Sep–October, according to reproduce, this new photoperiod are pure and you may coming down, depending on the seasons plus the geographic standing of demonstration station when you look at the Northern Italy (normally, 12L:12D), and for the 2nd several months (regarding 38 days old, out-of December to 53 days old), phony white try gradually enhanced (in interior room, filament-based bulb, in the 60 lux) to get a great photoperiod of 14L:10D. The photoperiod are controlled by the a timekeeper, also it try attained by switching on the newest white one hour prior to dawn and shutting off they one hour immediately after sundown. This new additional environment heat is 10 ± 3.cuatro °C and eleven ± step 3.0 °C, respectively, to your very first (from the beginning out of October for the end of November) in addition to second (right from the start of January with the prevent of February) laying attacks, in the event the study on give abilities and eggs top quality was indeed compiled. The animals were given post libitum industrial nourishes according to the emotional stage (around three varied commercial nourishes when you look at the increasing months). On very first laying phase (26–33 months old, below decreasing sheer photoperiod), when the types become laying, this new wild birds were given a professional pelleted offer (PG = 16%, Me = eleven.8 MJ/kilogram, Ca = step one.1%, P = 0.6%) and you may maize (PG = nine.1%, Myself = 13.eight MJ/kg), at a ratio of just one:step one. It’s well worth recalling one to, at this many years, just the dual-goal and you may tinted eggshell breeds exhibited a variable onset of laying and you can egg production rates, while the newest hens belonging to the most other varieties of this new Conservation Middle to own Biodiversity and hatched meanwhile of the examined breeds, such as the white eggshell breeds, didn’t start installing (Padovana breed) otherwise they exhibited an extremely scant laying interest (Polverara breed), never attaining the tolerance regarding 10% hen–big date eggs development. The reason for the option of the new Maintenance Hub, to not ever explore a rss feed to possess putting hens throughout the this era, was because of not forcing the brand new pullets so you can egg development while in the a period with decreasing heat and you can photoperiod. The latest birds increased outdoors, significantly less than favourable criteria having skeletal fitness, travelling soil and you may lower than solar power radiation. In the outdoor area for each and every reproduce, the clear presence of turf available to new wild birds are large during the the fresh new expanding several months than just from the start of putting, and this taken place following the summer months, in the event that rain are scarce and you can didn’t support good turf regrowth. Out of 38 so you can 53 days of age, and you may lower than growing photoperiod, the brand new hens have been given a commercial pelleted provide for installing (PG = 16%, Me = 11.5 MJ/kg, California = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). All the nourishes consisted primarily out of maize and you can soybean.